The teen appeared in juvenile court in Toledo on Friday to face a complicity to murder charge.
Prosecutors would not say what involvement the 17-year-old may have had in the shooting.
Police say 3-year-old Malachi Barnes was in the backseat of his father's car on Nov. 22 when another vehicle pulled alongside on I-75 and someone began shooting.
The boy later died at a hospital. Two other children also were in the car.
Investigators have told The Blade newspaper that the suspect has ties to the Toledo area and that he was arrested Thursday.
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